by Hum Hain Azadaar
by Hum Hain Azadaar
(1) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad and Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani Shafi’i in Mawaddati’l-Qurba towards the end of the fourth Mawadda, have recorded that the Holy Prophet said, “O Ali! You shall discharge responsibilities on my behalf, and you are my Vicegerent over my following.”
(2) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in Musnad, Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi’i in Manaqib and Tha’labi in his Tafsir (commentary) have reported that the Holy Prophet said to Ali: “O Ali! You are my brother, successor, vicegerent, and the payer of my debt.”
(3) Abu Qasim Husain Bin Muhammad (Raghib Ispahani) in Mahadhiratu’l-Udaba wa Muhawaratu’sh-Shu’ara wa’l-Balagha (printed in Amira-e-Shazafiyya, Seyyed Husain Afandi, 1326 A.H.), part II, page 213, quotes from Ibn Malik that the Prophet said: “Verily, my friend, helper, Vicegerent, and the choicest of men whom I am leaving behind, who will pay my debt and fulfill my promise, is Ali Bin Abu Talib.”
(4) Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani in Mawaddatu’l-Qurba, at the beginning of the sixth Mawadda, narrates from the second Caliph, Umar Bin Khattab, that when the Prophet established the relationship of brotherhood among the companions, he said: “This Ali is my brother in this world and in the Hereafter; he is my successor from among my kin and my Vicegerent among my umma; he is the heir of my knowledge and the payer of my debt; whatever he owes to me, I owe to him. His profit is my profit, and his loss is my loss; one who is his friend is my friend; one who is his enemy is my enemy.”
(5) In the same Mawadda, he quotes a hadith from Anas bin Malik, which I have mentioned earlier. Toward its end he says that the Holy Prophet said, “He (Ali) is my Vicegerent and helper.”
(6) Muhammad Bin Ganji Shafi’i quotes a hadith from Abu Dharr Ghifari in his book, Kifayatu’t-Talib, that the Prophet said, “The flag of Ali, the commander of the believers, the leader of the bright-faced people, and my Vicegerent, will come to me at the Fountain of Kauthar.”
(7) Baihaqi, Khatib Khawarizmi, and Ibn Maghazili Shafi’i write in their Manaqib that the Prophet said to Ali: “It is not proper that I depart from the people without you becoming my successor since you are the choicest of the believers after me.”
(8) Imam Abu Abdu’r-Rahman Nisa’i, one of the Imams of the Six Books of Traditions, narrates in detail from Ibn Abbas the virtues of Ali in connection with hadith 23 in Khasa’isu’l-Alawi. After describing the rank of the prophet Aaron, the Holy Prophet said to Ali: “You are my Vicegerent after me for every believer.”
This hadith and others in which the Holy Prophet used the phrase “after me” clearly prove that Ali was his immediate successor.
(9) There is the “Hadith of Creation,” which has been narrated in different ways. Imam Bin Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani in Mawaddatu’l-Qurba, Ibn Maghazili Shafi’i in Manaqib, and Dailami in Firdaus have quoted the Prophet as saying: “I and Ali were created of the same Divine Light 14,000 years before Adam was created. From the loins of the Prophet Adam and through his holy progeny, the Light was inherited by Abdu’l-Muttalib, and from him it was divided and inherited by Abdullah, (father of the Prophet) and Abu Talib, (father of Ali). I was granted prophethood, and Ali was granted the caliphate.”
(10) Hafiz Abu Ja’far Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari (d.310 A.H.) writes in his Kitabu’l-Wilaya that the Prophet said in the beginning of his renowned address at Ghadir-e-Khum: “The angel Gabriel has conveyed Allah’s command to me that I stop at this place and inform the people that Ali Bin Abu Talib is my brother, my successor, my Caliph (Vicegerent) after me. O men! Allah has made Ali your Wali (guardian), and Imam (guide). Obedience to him is obligatory on each one of you; his command is supreme; his utterance is truth; curse be on him who opposes him; Allah’s mercy be on him who befriends him.”
(11) Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi in Yanabiu’l-Mawadda reports from the Manaqib of Ahmad, and he from Ibn Abbas, a hadith which describes many of Ali’s merits. I quote all of it. Ibn Abbas reports that the Prophet said: “O Ali, you are the bearer of my knowledge, my Wali and friend, my successor, the heir of my knowledge, and my Caliph. You are the trustee of the heritage of all the preceding prophets. You are the confidant of Allah on this earth and Allah’s proof for the whole of creation. You are a pillar of Iman (faith) and the guardian of Islam. You are a lamp in darkness, a light of guidance, and for the people of the world you are a raised standard. O Ali! He who follows you is delivered; he who disobeys you will perish; you are the luminous way, and a straight path; you are the leader of pure men, and the head of the believers; to whomsoever I am Master (Maula), you are also his Master (Maula), and I am the Master of every believer (man or woman). Only he is your friend who is born of lawful wedlock. Allah did not transport me to the heavens to speak with me without telling me, ‘O Muhammad! Convey my salutation to Ali and tell him that he is the Imam of my friends and the Light of worshippers.’ Congratulations to you, O Ali, on this marvelous excellence.”
(12) Abu Mu’ayyid Muwafiqu’d-Din, the best orator of Khawarizm, in his Faza’il of the Commander of the Faithful, printed in 1313 A.H., Chapter XIX, page 240, quotes the sources who reported that the Prophet said: “When I reached Sidratu’l-Muntaha (‘the farthest Lote Tree,’ the highest station during the Mi’raj), I was addressed thus: ‘O Muhammad! When you tested the people, whom did you find the most obedient?’ I said ‘Ali.’ Allah then said, ‘You have told the truth, Muhammad!’ Further, He said, ‘Have you selected a Vicegerent who will convey your knowledge to the people, and teach my servants from My Book those things which they do not know?’ I said, ‘O Allah! Whomever you select, I will select.’ He said, ‘I have selected Ali for you. I make him your Vicegerent and successor.’ And He furnished Ali with His knowledge and forbearance. He is the Commander of the Faithful whom no one can equal in rank among his predecessors or successors.”
There are many such hadith in your authentic books. Some of your just ulema, like Nizzam Basri, have acknowledged this fact. Salahu’d-Din Safdi in his Wafa Bi’l-Wafiyya, in connection with the account of Ibrahim Bin Sayyar Bin Hani Basri, known as Nizzam Mu’tazali, says: “The Prophet of Allah confirmed the Imamate of Ali and appointed him the Imam (Guide). The companions of the Prophet were also fully aware of it, but Umar, for the sake of Abu Bakr, covered the Imamate of Ali with a curtain.”
It is clear from your own books, hadith, and Qur’anic commentaries that Ali occupied the highest position of virtue. Khatib Khawarizmi reports from Ibn Abbas in Manaqib, Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi’i in his Kifayatu’t-Talib, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkira, Ibn Sabbagh Maliki in Fusulu’l-Mawadda, Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in Yanabiu’l-Mawadda and Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani in Mawaddatu’l-Qurba, Mawadda V, quotation from the second Caliph, Umar Bin Khattab – all confirming with slight variations of words – that the Prophet said: “If all the trees were pens, if the seas were ink, if all the jinn and men were recorders – even then the virtues of Ali Bin Abu Talib could not be enumerated.”
O Kumayl ! Knowledge is power and it can command obedience. A man of knowledge during his lifetime can make people obey and follow him and he is praised and venerated after his death. Remember that knowledge is a ruler and wealth is its subject.
O Kumayl ! Those who collects wealth, though alive, are dead to realities of life, and those who achieve know- ledge, will remain alive through their knowledge and wisdom even after their death, though their faces may disappear from the community of living beings, yet their ideas, the knowledge which they had left behind and their memory, will remain in the minds of people”.
Kumayl says that after this brief dissertation, Imam Ali pointed towards his chest and said, “Look Kumayl! Here I hold stores and treasures of knowledge. I wish I could find somebody to share it with me. Yes, I found a few, but one of them, though quite intelligent, was untrustworthy, he would sell his salvation to get hold of the world and its pleasures, he would make religion a pretence to grasp worldly power and wealth, he would make this Blessing of Allah (knowledge) serve him to get supremacy and control over friends of Allah and he would through knowledge exploit and suppress other human beings.
The other person was such that he apparently obeyed truth and knowledge, yet his mind had not achieved the true light of religion, at the slightest ambiguity or doubt he would get suspicious of truth, mistrust religion and would rush towards skepticism. So neither of them was capable of acquiring the superior knowledge that I can impart. Besides these two I find some other person One of them is a slave of self and greedy for inordinate desires, which can easily drag him away from the path of religion, the other is an avaricious, grasping and acquisitive miser who will risk his life to grasp and hold wealth, none of these two will be of any use to religion or man, both of them resemble beasts having appetite for food.
If sensible trustees of knowledge and wisdom totally disappear from human society then both knowledge and wisdom will suffer severely, may bring harm to humanity and may even die out. But this earth will never be without those persons who will prove the universality of truth as disclosed by Allah, they may be well-known persons, openly and fearlessly declaring the things revealed to them or they may, under fear of harm, injury or deaths hide themselves from the public gaze and may carry on their mission privately so that the reasons proving the reality of truth as preached by religion and as demonstrated by His Prophet may not totally disappear. How many are they and where could they be found? I swear by Allah that they are very few in number but their worth and their ranks before Allah are very high.
Through them Allah preserves His Guidance so that they, while departing, may hand over these truths to persons like themselves. The knowledge which they have acquired has made them see the realities and visualize the truth and has instilled into them the spirit of faith and trust. The duties which were decreed as hard and unbearable by them. They feel happy in the company and association of things which frighten the ignorant and uneducated. They live in this world like everybody else but their souls soar to the heights of Divine Eminence. They are media of Allah on this earth and they invite people towards Him. How I love to meet them O Kumayl ! I have told you all that I have to say, you can go back to your place whenever you like”.